The determination of the different species of truffles is essentially based on morphological characters such as shape, size, color, ornamentation of the peridium, appearance of the gleba, aroma and flavor.
The determination of the species in the laboratory takes place through the recognition of the spores or with biomolecular analysis techniques.
In the world the species of mushrooms currently classified as Tuber are about 63, in Italy there are 25, but only 9 are considered edible and 6 are the most commonly marketed:
- Tuber Magnatum Pico (White Truffle from Alba or Acqualagna or White Precious)
- Tuber Melanosporum Vitt. (Black Truffle of Norcia or Precious Black)
- Tuber Aestivum Vitt. (Scorzone)
- Tuber Borchii Vitt. (Bianchetto or Marzuolo Truffle)
- Tuber Brumale Vitt. (Winter Truffle)
- Tuber Macrosporum Vitt. (Smooth Black Truffle)